实行培训考核使用待遇相统一

作者: 何朱必 分类: 我的论文 发布时间: 2016-03-17 20:41 ė views 6 108条评论

落实“按需培训”原则
实行培训考核使用待遇相统一

 何朱必

(本文系“第一届冶金矿协企业文化教育专业委员会会议交流材料”,荣获全国矿协企业文化研讨会论文三等奖,并收入本会论文集)

人才的培训教育是人力资源特别是高层次人力资源开发获取高素质人才的一种基本原动力。人才是企业的第一资源,培训教育是一种投资,对人要进行终身教育,企业、部门、单位、社会要成为学习的组织,这一概念已成为普遍共识。 企业间的竞争,归根结底是人才的竞争,而培训作为培养人才的一种重要手段,已成为企业在竞争激烈的市场上能否取胜的一项关键性工作。伴随知识经济时代的到来,人的智能化的地位获得空前提高,人力资本已超越了物质资本及货币资本而成为最主要的生产要素和社会财富的重要组成部分。知识经济的内涵一是强调知识和信息作为知识经济时代的基础;二是强调人力资本和学习的重要性。新技术革命所开创的信息时代向传统人事管理提出了一系列人力资源开发的新课题。“如何激发员工活力,如何开发员工的才能”这是全球企业特别是我国企业所要通过培训解决的问题。
世界银行发表报告指出:当前世界财富的64%是由人力资本(即知识资本)构成的;近10年来美国经济的稳步发展也是由人力资本所推动的。世界各国对人才培训、人力资源开发的投资不断增加,培训教育日益法制化与制度化,培训教育职能日益专业化。凡此种种,皆表明培训教育的战略性地位和作为一门职业领域地位在全球范围内的确立。
我国越来越多的企业已经认识到人力资源的开发在现代企业的发展中的重要地位,并开始积极探索有效的人力资源开发培训的方式、方法,但目前却苦于现有的培训模式多是西方舶来品,这使得企业在开展员工培训过程中,难免出现“水土不服”的现象。加之,目前不少企业管理不规范,随意性强,人治大于法治,缺乏长远的战略目标,目标仅仅是口号,忽视团队建设,人力资源管理不善,责、权、利不明,权限委让不清,培训的短视效应,没有为企业的长远发展打好基础,仅强调培训计划,不强调培训结果等等,这与现代企业员工培训要求很不相符。很多管理专家正致力于此问题的探讨研究,努力寻找解决问题的方法与途径。落实“按需培训”原则,实行培训、考核、使用、待遇相统一,是目前公认较为有效的方法。
一、落实“按需培训”原则,要认真分析现代企业员工培训的新趋势
随着技术和理念的不断发展,国际上特别是欧美的一些企业的员工培训和教育出现了一些新趋势,主要表现在以下几个方面:
1、企业借助培训和教育的功能,使企业成为“学习型组织”
成功的企业将培训和教育作为企业不断获得效益的源泉。“学习型组织”的最大特点是:崇尚知识和技能,倡导理性思维和合作精神,鼓励劳资双方通过素质的提高来确保企业的不断发展。这种学习型的企业与一般的企业的最大区别就是,永不满足地提高产品和服务的质量,通过不断学习进取和创新来提高效率。
2、企业培训呈现高科技趋势
利用高科技来丰富培训手段和提高培训质量,是近年来国际上兴起的企业培训的潮流。特别是电脑多媒体技术被广泛地运用于企业培训工作,如运用光盘进行人机对话、自我辅导培训、利用终端技术互联网进行规模巨大的远程培训等等,都使培训和教育方式产生质的变化。这种技术创新,使员工获得新知识和新技术的速度大大加快,使企业可以迅速适应市场的快速变化。
3、企业培训社会化
现代企业的许多要素,如管理、经营、销售,乃至文化理念,都有许多相通之处,这就为培训的社会化创造了基本条件,同时,现代社会的分工和信息交流的畅通,使得培训能以社会化的形式出现。其中,冶金矿山由于远离城市高校,要加强矿山员工文化教育,“校企联合办学”将成为一种新发展趋势。高校以自身强大的师资力量等优势,采取“培训+函授”模式,深入到矿山工作地点,而矿山企业员工通过半脱产形式边生产边学习,这样,既扩展了高校“成教”范围,又减少了矿山企业员工教育的“工学矛盾”。
4、企业培训的深层次发展
许多企业已将企业员工的培训向各个领域渗透,其内涵已远远超过培训本身。比如,一些企业除了员工知识和技能的培训,还通过一定的形式,向培训企业文化、团队精神、劳资关系等方向发展,使企业行为进入更深层次的领域。这是一个具有重要战略意义的发展趋势。
5、培训质量成为培训的生命
首先,培训者要认清员工培训的特点,从员工的需求和企业的需求之间寻找最佳结合点。其次,培训还要有一个科学和规范的组织程序和操作程序,在时间和空间上最大限度地贴近企业管理和业务的实际,用最佳方法帮助员工获得知识和技能,最后,追求效益的最佳化和成本的合理化。
二、落实“按需培训”原则,必须注重“八个结合”
1、与企业的发展方向、规划相结合。企业培训规划、计划主要是依据企业发展规划而拟定的,培训为企业实现发展方向做好人才保证工作,做到“兵马未动,粮草先行”。所以,企业规划同时又是企业发展规划的重要组成部分,二者不可分割。
2、与企业的发展实力、经济基础相结合。对员工进行知识、技能培训的意愿永远是正确的,但不能脱离企业实际实力、经济基础,增添企业负担为代价。培训工作要做到量力而行,企业经济实力来强可全员培训、普及培训;企业经济实力弱可实行部份关键岗位人员培训、重点培训,量力而行。对员工进行知识、技能培训时间有先有后;依据个人岗位、素质,在受训要求方面亦有深有浅。众多和单一学科知识的浩瀚性、先进性与发展性,决定了每个人都不能穷尽所有这些知识,并不是所有员工不懂的知识、技能都需要员工在有限的时间内就能掌握,应有轻重缓急之分,选择企业目前、近期或中期急需的知识技能进行培训。
3、与企业的经营生产状况相结合。社会在发展,企业需要发展,员工的知识、技能需适应性、甚至超前地发展,员工接受培训是必要的,但要以最短时间、最小规模影响、甚至不影响企业当前经营生产任务顺利完成为前提,来开展企业培训工作。重在对职工特别是一线职工、转岗职工的教育和培训,形成职工在岗和轮岗培训制度。
4、与企业的人力资源有效使用、人才结构及其变化趋势相结合。企业的人力资源、人才结构是企业开展培训工作的基础,同时它们又是客观变化的;企业只有结合企业自身的人力资源、人才结构开展培训工作,才能使培训有的放矢,而且可以通过培训的调节功能,达到“使人适事”的目的,使企业的人力资源得以最佳使用和发挥、优化企业人才结构,使之得以稳定、良性发展。
5、与企业的人才培养工作相结合。人才培养的途径、方法是多种多样的,培训只是其中的一种,员工培训在人才培养中的作用、地位,不能忽视,通过培训,培养挖掘企业潜在的优秀人才,适时给予加薪晋升;激励员工不断学习,更新观念,增长技能,具备企业发展所需要的新知识、新技能。并根据企业对知识、技能的需求量、缓急程度及培训的内容、人员、时间、地点、施训单位等选择不同的方式、类型。
6、与企业的人才引进、招聘工作相结合。一方面要立足于企业人力资源,“自力更生”开展企业培训工作,另一方面要充分利用社会人才资源,采取短平快式的“拿来主义”,适度引进、招聘人才;同时要结合人才引进、招聘的计划、难易、代价等因素,有计划的开展培训工作。
7、与企业员工的个人素质、潜力、发展计划相结合。企业要求员工德才兼备,因此培训既要注重员工技能的培训,也要注重员工品德素质的培训,使员工的品质与企业文化相符。培训防止概念化、形式化、一般化。因材施教、因人而宜是教育的法则,也是企业开展培训工作所必须遵循的法则。培训内容符合员工岗位、员工要求,能更快挖掘员工潜在的能力,帮助员工实现个人职业规划。
8、上岗前培训与岗位培训相结合。上岗前培训是必须的,而且是一次性的短期适应性培训。使员工在短期内产生对企业的信任感与热爱心理,使员工基本掌握岗位的性质、特点和要求使之能顺利正式上岗。但切异用导向培训替代岗位培训,岗位培训是不断的、长期的,是从初级到高级不断提高的取证培训,是造就员工具备企业特色专才的一项长期工作,也是“资格证”持证上岗准入制度的具体落实。
三、落实“按需培训”原则,关键要实行培训、考核、使用、待遇相统一
1、落实“按需培训”原则,要树立正确的员工培训理念。按需培训,一方面是企业按长远规划目标的需要进行员工培训,应改变重招聘轻培训思想。招聘不能取代培训,虽然说培训是一种投资,会增加企业生产成本,但由于招聘的人才往往不一定完全胜任新环境新岗位工作、知识结构有可能需要调整等原因造成一段时间有能力也发挥不了,加之人才具有层次性和多面性,应具有本职工作需要的全面知识和熟练掌握本职工作技能,还应具有企业文化理念等要求,因此,企业必须及时针对不同层次、不同岗位的人才状况进行员工培训,另一方面,企业要严格执行内部劳动力市场的职业资格认证制度,推行培训取证和持证上岗,并通过良好的企业文化建设为员工提供一个良好的发展空间,以促使员工尽快确立长期职业规划,让员工既有竞争上岗的危机感又安心在企业工作,员工就会在企业搭建起来的培训平台上规划自己的培训需求,反过来说,企业就有了进一步为员工开辟新的培训途径,不断完善企业“按需培训”规划。
2、企业搭建起员工培训平台后,战略的实施及成功必须有完善的计划来予以保证。员工培训一般应在本年度末来制定下年度的整个培训计划。各部门应根据在企业经营战略下确定的本部门发展战略和计划来制定本部门员工培训计划,明确各类人才教育培训方法和渠道,突出生产技术工人的培训,并报人力资源部门进行审核、批准及汇总。对于与实现企业经营战略密切相关的部门及员工则进行重点安排,如安排其参加由高校或专门咨询机构所开设的专业课程,或计划聘请外部专家来进行培训。
3、好的计划必须要靠好的实施来实现,关键重在考核。人力资源管理部门必须加强对培训的反馈和及时跟踪,对未按计划实施培训的部门应予以警告,并对其主管在绩效考核时予以扣分等处罚。参加培训人员必须在出席签到单上签字,以及培训结束后必须对员工进行有效考核,最后各部门要将签到单交人力资源部门执行绩效考核。对不按时参加培训及考核不合格的员工进行通报批评,并要求其参加补考,直至合格。
4、培训最终要获得好的收效,必须依靠好的用人机制和培训与待遇直接挂钩的激励机制来保证。首先要完善企业领导者和经营管理人员的考核、提拔、任用制度,完善专业技术人员的奖励晋升制度,提倡个人资质和通过培训获得的技术技能作为在人事上用人的主要衡量指标;其次要破除重学历轻技术、轻能力的传统观念,畅通工人技术职称和管理职务的晋升渠道,落实不同层次、不同职务、不同岗位人才的生活、薪酬待遇,形成一套不拘一格选拔和使用人才的机制,从而变“要我培训”为“我要培训”,变强迫员工参加培训为员工个人主动积极参与培训,也即从根本上解决培训效果不佳和培训工作不能持续稳定开展的不良局面。
5、落实“按需培训”原则,要注意企业与员工之间的双方约束。企业有责任投资培训员工和使用员工,员工自主选择培训并对企业负责,在劳动合同签定的服务年限内“跳槽”,应赔偿企业支付的培训费。这样,一方面可改变“企业花钱搞培训,还不及挖墙脚猎人才”的观念,确保企业投资培训可以得到应有的回报,另一方面,员工自主参与培训并承担“跳槽”风险和培训机会成本,事实上也是员工确立长期职业规划、尽心尽职为企业服务的具体表现。
四、员工培训的改进建议及探讨
针对目前企业培训的现状,树立“落实按需培训原则,实行培训、考核、使用、待遇相统一”的员工培训理念,我们认为企业应该根据自己的情况采取如下的具体的改进措施:
1、将培训工作做到实处。目前不少企业中,尤其是中小企业要树立起对培训重要性的认识理念,不要总是流于形式,应该转变意识观念,认认真真的开展培训工作,同时要做好培训的效果评估工作,而不是“虎头蛇尾”,并且要做到培训工作与企业规划的有机结合,使培训工作有助于企业总体目标的实现。
2、做好长远规划,不能只顾眼前的利益。很多企业之所以忽略甚至放弃培训这个环节,很大程度上是因为资金的瓶颈,也可以说他们不愿在这方面投入太多的费用。但实际上,我们要学会“从长计议”,强化对人力资源教育培训的投资。
3、改进培训方式、方法。学习、借鉴国外先进的培训方法,深入进行教学改革,总结探索出一套符合中国国情的、以提高能力为主要目的的培训工作新思路,摆脱培训方式、方法就是简单的“复制、粘贴”的局面。培训方式、类型多种多样,有脱产、不脱产、半脱产;有短期、长期;有面授、函授、自修;有公费、自费;还有因特网、电视等远程教育这种无国界的新型的家庭内的培训方式。要根据企业对知识、技能的需求量、缓急程度及培训的内容、人员、时间、地点、施训单位等选择不同的方式、类型。目前,多数企业的培训工作一方面是培训内容单一,广泛性不够,应采取多种形式和全方位培训,例如,针对矿山地处偏僻的实际,要多请专家到现场讲座或搞企业内训等等;另一方面是培训面窄,全员培训不够,参加培训人员应针对不同专业、不同管理层次进行广泛培训,对一线职工的培训比较多,但是对工程技术人员的培养力度不够,特别是对年轻工程技术人员的培养力度还有待加强。员工培训工作,不能只以满足本单位生产和建设的需要为目的,而要站得更高,立足于长远,立足于掌控国内一流的技术装备这一平台,求强创新,超越自我,不仅为自己培养优秀人才,为其它矿山源源不断地输送优秀人才。
4、建立和发展完善的培训教学体系,不断提高培训的质量和针对性,使培训内容与受训者要求获得的知识、能力和技巧协调一致。通过教育培训管理系统监控培训,对培训进行正规而又定期的评估和反馈,使其成为促进高质量培训的有力手段。建立人才评价体系,动态优化整合岗位设置,加强“传、帮、带、授”师带徒工作,加速人才培养和探索员工职业发展规划设计,责任到人,师徒相互结对子。
5、采用联合培训模式。不同的教育与培训机构之间、企业与培训机构之间要学会交流培训发展的信息知识和经验,根据我国现有国情,争取资本的优化,不同的职能部门之间要能够做到共享专门的技能和设备,共同努力来增强资源基础。特别是冶金矿山企业应该大力提倡“校企联合办学”模式开展员工文化教育和职业技术培训工作,不断提高员工文化技术素质。针对急需的“地质”、“采矿”、“选矿”专业技术人员短缺,这方面专业的大学毕业生又比较紧俏,难以招聘和引进,要解决这方面的问题,进一步培训开发现有人才,可以探索新的“校企业联合培训”模式,将新招聘和引进的“地质”、“采矿”、“选矿”专业大学毕业生或技术人员送到“中国地质大学”、“中南大学”、“武汉科技大学”或“东北大学”进行专业知识提升培训,并要求参培员工与公司签订培训服务协议,服务年限至少10年以上。
6、注重解决特殊群体的人力资源培训发展的问题。如企业革新、高新技术、高级管理人才群体,从而改变这些领域人力资源不足和质量低下问题。特别对于我们钢铁行业来说,这一特殊群体正是未来企业经济持续发展的主要源动力,也是落实“按需培训原则”之当务之急。不断加大对中、高层领导现代化生产经营管理方面的培训力度,进一步提升中、高层领导驾驭企业的能力。特别是现代化生产经营管理方面的培训,应进行大力开展“走出去,学回来”专业业务对口交流培训,除了对处级干部进行系统理论学习外,应扩大培训范围到科级干部及专业技术人员,加大同行业对口交流培训力度,加大管理理念、管理思想和企业文化方面的专家学者讲座传授培训力度。

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